Testing Interview Questions and Answers

1- What is the difference between white box, black box, and gray box testing?
Ans : Black box testing is a testing strategy based solely on requirements and specifications. Black box testing requires no knowledge of internal paths, structures, or implementation of the software being tested.
White box testing is a testing strategy based on internal paths, code structures, and implementation of the software being tested. White box testing generally requires detailed programming skills.
There is one more type of testing called gray box testing. In this we look into the "box" being tested just long enough to understand how it has been implemented. Then we close up the box and use our knowledge to choose more effective black box tests.

2-What is Exception handling?
Ans : Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional events requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution. It is provided by specialized programming language constructs or computer hardware mechanisms.
In general, an exception is handled (resolved) by saving the current state of execution in a predefined place and switching the execution to a specific subroutine known as an exception handler. If exceptions are continuable, the handler may later resume the execution at the original location using the saved information. For example, a floating point divide by zero exception will typically, by default, allow the program to be resumed, while an out of memory condition might not be resolvable transparently.

3-What is failure?
Ans : Deviation from expected result to actual result.

4-What is exploratory testing?
Ans :  Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution. The planning involves the cre-ation of a test charter, a short declaration of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the objectives and possible approaches to be used. The test design and test execution activities are performed in parallel typi-cally without formally documenting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not mean that other, more formal testing techniques will not be used. For example, the tester may decide to use boundary value analysis but will think through and test the most important boundary values without necessarily writing them down. Some notes will be written during the exploratory-testing session, so that a report can be produced afterwards. 

5- When is used Decision table testing?
Ans : Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.

6- What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?
Ans : To identify defects in any software work product.

7- Which of the following defines the expected results of a test? Test case specification or test design specification.
Ans :Test case specification.

8-Which is the best testing model?
Ans : In real projects, tailored models are proven to be the best, because they share features from The Waterfall, Iterative, Evolutionary models, etc., and can fit into real life time projects. Tailored models are most productive and beneficial for many organizations. If it's a pure testing project, then the V model is the best.

9-Which is a benefit of test independence?
Ans :It avoids author bias in defining effective tests. 

10. As part of which test process do you determine the exit criteria?
Ans :Test planning. 

11. What is beta testing?
Ans :Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations. 

12. Rapid Application Development ?
Ans :Rapid Application Development (RAD) is formally a parallel development of functions and subsequent integration. Components/functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Rapid change and development of the product is possible using this methodology. However the product specification will need to be developed for the product at some point, and the project will need to be placed under more formal controls prior to going into production.

13. What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Tools?
Ans :Testing technique: – Is a process for ensuring that some aspects of the application system or unit functions properly there may be few techniques but many tools.
Testing Tools: – Is a vehicle for performing a test process. The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing  .

14. We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing …
Ans :User Acceptance Test Cases  .

15. Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component:
Ans :Regression Testing.

16. What is component testing ?
Ans : Component testing, also known as unit, module and program testing, searches for defects in, and verifies the functioning of software (e.g. modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depend-ing on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components in a simple manner. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.

17-What are the categories of defects?
Ans : There are three main categories of defects:
Wrong: The requirements have been implemented incorrectly. This defect is a variance from the given specification.
Missing: There was a requirement given by the customer and it was not done. This is a variance from the specifications, an indication that a specification was not implemented, or a requirement of the customer was not noted properly.
Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. This is always a variance from the specification, but may be an attribute desired by the user of the product. However, it is considered a defect because it's a variance from the existing requirements.

Some More Questions :

1-What is software testing ?
Ans : Software testing assures stakeholders about the quality of product. It prvide qulaity to your product like websites and software . Software testing is done by team of testing and they find out major drawbacks of software and website. Software tester makes software secure and free from bugs (technical faults while doing programming .

2-What are cosmetic issues ?
Ans : The bugs and errors that are related with grammetical error is known as cosmetic issues .The priority of bug is always low in cosmetic issues.

3-What is white box testing ?
Ans : Testing done of developer is known as white box testingn like unit testing .Implementation of unit testing is depend upon coding knowledge of product. Even software tester can perform white box testing but they have to be good in software product and they must be aware of coding .

4-What is Black box testing?
Ans : Black box testing is different from white box testing prospect. Software tester is basically known as black box testing .They don't need knowledge of internal structure and programming they must be aware of funtionality of product and they have check the user interface and check as end user.

5-What is beta testing ?
Ans : Beta testing is done by end user and software tester . Before actual delivery of product beta version is lauched by developer team to test the end user reuirement.

6-What is Alpha testing ?
Ans : Alpha testing is  actual operational testing by potential users or an independent test team at the developers' site. Alpha testing form of internal acceptance testing, before the software goes to beta testing.

7-What are the phases of software developement life cycle?
Ans : There are 7 phases of SDLC :
1- Feasibility study and planning
2-Requiement Analysis.
3-System design
5-Software testing.

8-Which model is used for verification and validation purpose ?
Ans : V model is used for validation and verification purpose.

9-What are defects and failures ?
Ans : Defects : All software code errors are not known as defects . we can say mismatch between the requiements is known as defects .
Failure : Failure is when defect executed and developers accept it as bug, fault known as failure.

10 - Various models used in software testing?
Ans : Various models used in software testing is as follows :
1-Waterfall Model ( Base of all the models )
2-Spiral Model .
3-V model (Used for verification and validation purpose).

11-What are various steps in V model ?
Ans : Various phases of V model :
1-Concept of operations
2-Requirement and Architecture.
3-Detailed Design
4-Integration test and validation.
5-System verification and validation.

12-What is Grey box testing ?
Ans : Combination of white box testing and black box testing is known as grey box testing means software developer and tester have to perform both level of testing but not having complete access to source code in this case both level is required.

13-What is regression testing ?
Ans : Regression testing is performed by tester again on again to know the output of changes done to UI of software .

14-What is retesting ?
Ans : No need to confuse between regression testing and retesting .Retesting doesn't go under changes as regression testing. In re-testing operation is performed again and again to produce the same result.

15-What is unit testing ?
Ans : A software is divided into several modules (Parts ) Every part is considered as a unit of software .It is performaed by developer team after accomplishing the module of software . It is known as white box testing.                                                

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